The Avengers is a team of superheroes, appearing in magazines published by Marvel Comics. The team made its debut in 1963 in ‘The Avengers #1,’ and was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, following the trend of super-hero teams after the success of DC Comics’ Justice League of America. Labeled ‘Earth’s Mightiest Heroes,’ the Avengers originally consisted of Iron Man, Ant-Man, Wasp, Thor, and the Hulk. The original Captain America was discovered by the team in issue #4, trapped in ice, and he joined the group when they revived him. The rotating roster has become a hallmark of the team, although one theme remains consistent: the Avengers fight ‘the foes no single superhero can withstand.’ The team, famous for its battle cry of ‘Avengers Assemble!,’ has featured humans, mutants, robots, gods, aliens, supernatural beings, and even former villains.
James Jean is a Taiwanese-American visual artist, known for both his commercial and fine art gallery work. He is also known in the American comics industry as a cover artist for various books published by DC Comics, as well as for his work for Prada, ESPN, and Atlantic Records. His work, which has been collected in numerous volumes, has been compared to Maxfield Parrish (known for his distinctive saturated hues and idealized neo-classical imagery). Jean was born in Taiwan and was raised in Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey. He illustrated covers for the comic book series ‘Fables’ and ‘The Umbrella Academy.’ In 2008, Jean retired from illustration and commercial projects to focus on painting.
In 2007, Jean created a mural for the Prada Epicenter stores in New York and Los Angeles. He also created a backdrop for Prada’s Spring/Summer 2008 show in Milan. Aspects of the Epicenter mural and the Milan wallpaper were transformed into clothing, handbags, shoes, and packaging. Prada undertook a global campaign that featured Jean’s work in advertising environments, animation, and special events. Jean developed an animated short based on the theme titled ‘Trembled Blossoms,’ taken from the poem ‘Ode to Psyche,’ by John Keats (one of his darker and more experimental odes). In 2010, Jean was commissioned by fashion designer Phillip Lim to paint a series of portraits featuring Los Angeles-based actors, musicians, and tastemakers, including Rachel Bilson, Selma Blair, and Devendra Banhart.
Joshua Steele, known professionally as Flux Pavilion, is an English dubstep producer and DJ. He is the co-founder of Circus Records, along with Doctor P, DJ Swan-E, and Dyspro. He is best known for his 2011 single ‘Bass Cannon.’ Along with Doctor P, Flux Pavilion presented the 2011 compilation album ‘Circus One,’ to which he contributed four tracks. In 2011 his track ‘I Can’t Stop’ was sampled by producer Shama ‘Sak Pase’ Joseph for hip-hop album, ‘Watch the Throne’ by Jay-Z and Kanye West.
A displacement activity is the result of two contradicting instincts in a particular situation. Birds, for example, may peck at grass when uncertain whether to attack or flee from an opponent; similarly, a human may scratch his or her head when they do not know which of two options to choose. Displacement activities often involve actions to bring comfort such as scratching, drinking, or feeding. The first description of a displacement activity (though not the use of the term) is probably by English evolutionary biologist Julian Huxley in 1914. The subsequent development of research on displacement activities was a direct consequence of Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz’s works on instincts. However, the first mentions of the phenomenon came in 1940 by the two Dutch zoological researchers Nikolaas Tinbergen and Adriaan Kortlandt.
Intellectualization is a defense mechanism where reasoning is used to block confrontation with an unconscious conflict and its associated emotional stress, by ‘using excessive and abstract ideation to avoid difficult feelings.’ It involves removing one’s self, emotionally, from a stressful event.
Intellectualization may accompany, but ‘differs from rationalization, which is justification of irrational behavior through cliches, stories, and pat explanation.’ It is one of Freud’s original defense mechanisms. Freud believed that memories have both conscious and unconscious aspects, and that intellectualization allows for the conscious analysis of an event in a way that does not provoke anxiety.
A defense mechanism is the coping technique individuals unconsciously use to protect themselves from getting hurt in unpleasant situations (e.g. conflicts, unhappiness). Without defense mechanism, people may suffer from psychological and mental illness. In Freudian psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanisms are unconscious, psychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and to maintain self-image. Healthy persons normally use different defenses throughout life. An ego defense mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behavior such that the physical and/or mental health of the individual is adversely affected. The purpose of ego defense mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety and/or social sanctions and/or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot currently cope.
Defense mechanisms are more accurately referred to as ego defence mechanisms, and can thus be categorized as occurring when the id impulses are in conflict with each other, when the id impulses conflict with super-ego values and beliefs, and when an external threat is posed to the ego. The term ‘defense mechanism’ is often thought to refer to a definitive singular term for personality traits which arise due to loss or traumatic experiences, but more accurately refers to several types of reactions which were identified during and after Sigmund Freud’s daughter Anna’s time. Defense mechanisms are sometimes confused with coping strategies. One resource used to evaluate these mechanisms is the ‘Defense Style Questionnaire.’