Stanford Torus

stanford torus

The Stanford torus is a proposed design for a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 to 140,000 permanent residents. It was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of speculating on designs for future space colonies. The concept of a ring-shaped rotating space station was previously proposed by Wernher von Braun and Herman Potočnik.

It consists of a torus, or donut-shaped ring, that is 1.8 km in diameter and rotates once per minute to provide between 0.9g and 1.0g of artificial gravity on the inside of the outer ring via centrifugal force. Sunlight is provided to the interior of the torus by a system of mirrors. The ring is connected to a hub via a number of  spokes, which serve as conduits for people and materials travelling to and from the hub. Since the hub is at the rotational axis of the station, it experiences the least artificial gravity and is the easiest location for spacecraft to dock.


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