EcoBot refers to a class of robots that can remain self-sustainable by collecting their energy from waste in the environment. The only by-product from this process is carbon dioxide, which would have been produced from biodegradation in the first place. EcoBots do not employ any other form of conventional power supply and do not require any form of initial charging from an external source. Instead, they are powered directly by the on-board microbial fuel cells (MFCs).

EcoBot-I, was developed in 2002 at Bristol Robotics Laboratory (U.K.); it utilized sugar as the fuel to perform phototaxis (move towards the light). EcoBot-II (2004) was the first robot in the world to perform sensing, information processing, communication and phototaxis, by utilizing unrefined biomass (e.g. dead flies, rotten fruits and crustacean shells). EcoBot-II operated continuously for 12 days after having been fed with 8 houseflies.


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