Project Horizon

Army Ballistic Missile Agency

Project Horizon was a study to determine the feasibility of constructing a scientific / military base on the Moon. In 1959, a group at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) produced for the U.S. Department of the Army a report entitled ‘Project Horizon, A U.S. Army Study for the Establishment of a Lunar Military Outpost.’

The project proposal states the requirements as: ‘The lunar outpost is required to develop and protect potential United States interests on the moon; to develop techniques in moon-based surveillance of the earth and space, in communications relay, and in operations on the surface of the moon; to serve as a base for exploration of the moon, for further exploration into space, and for military operations on the moon if required; and to support scientific investigations on the moon.’

The permanent outpost was predicted to cost $6 billion and become operational in 1966 with twelve soldiers. Wernher von Braun, head of ABMA, appointed Heinz-Hermann Koelle to head the project team at Redstone Arsenal. Plans called for 147 early Saturn A-class rocket launches to loft spacecraft components for assembly in low Earth orbit at a spent-tank space station. A lunar landing-and-return vehicle would have shuttled up to 16 astronauts at a time to the base and back. ‘Horizon’ never progressed past the feasibility stage in an official capacity.

The base would be defended against Soviet overland attack by man-fired weapons: Unguided Davy Crockett rockets with low-yield nuclear warheads and Conventional Claymore mines modified to puncture pressure suits. Two nuclear reactors would be located in pits to provide shielding and provide power for the operation of the preliminary quarters and for the equipment used in the construction of the permanent facility.

Empty cargo and propellant containers would be assembled and used for storage of bulk supplies, weapons, and life essentials. Two types of surface vehicles would be used, one for lifting, digging, and scraping, another for more extended distance trips needed for hauling, reconnaissance, and rescue. A lightweight parabolic antenna erected near the main quarters would provide communications with Earth. At the conclusion of the construction phase the original construction camp quarters would be converted to a bio-science and physics-science laboratory.

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