String Theory

string theory

String theory is the name for a number of mathematical models that want to find a common explanation for the four main forces that have so far been observed in nature. These forces are gravity, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force, respectively. Classical physics says that the universe is made of small particles (points) which are basically static and unchanging. String theory says that the particle is a string/line (not a particle/point) that forms these four different forces by vibrating in different ways.

String Theory suggests that the universe is similar to a very big guitar. The strings upon the guitar are one dimensional and vibrate to take the form of all matter. String theory suggests that when these tiny loops move really, really fast back and forth in different and diverse ways, each of which is a different type of matter. These changes in oscillation can be hard to detect, as the strings are oscillating in at least 10 different dimensions.

String theory is an active research theory in particle physics that attempts to reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity. It is a contender for the theory of everything (TOE), a manner of describing the known fundamental forces and matter in a mathematically complete system. The theory has yet to make testable experimental predictions, leading some to claim that it cannot be considered a part of science.

String theories require the existence of several extra, unobservable dimensions to the universe, in addition to the four known spacetime dimensions.

The theory has its origins in the dual resonance model (1969). Since that time, the term string theory has developed to incorporate any of a group of related superstring theories. Five major string theories were formulated. The main differences among them were the number of dimensions in which the strings developed and their characteristics. In the mid 1990s a unification of all previous superstring theories, called M-theory, was proposed, which asserted that strings are really 1-dimensional slices of a 2-dimensional membrane vibrating in 11-dimensional spacetime.

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