Chain Letter

Viral marketing

A typical chain letter consists of a message that attempts to convince the recipient to make a number of copies of the letter and then pass them on to as many recipients as possible. Common methods used in chain letters include emotionally manipulative stories, get-rich-quickly pyramid schemes, and the exploitation of superstition to threaten the recipient with bad luck or even physical violence or death if he or she ‘breaks the chain’ and refuses to adhere to the conditions set out in the letter.

Chain letters started as actual letters that one received in the mail. Today, chain letters are generally no longer actual letters. They are sent through email messages, postings on social network sites, and text messages.

There are two main types of chain letters: Hoaxes and Urban legends. Hoaxes attempt to trick or defraud users. A hoax could be malicious, instructing users to delete a file necessary to the operating system by claiming it is a virus. It could also be a scam that convinces users to send money or personal information. Phishing attacks could fall into this. Urban legends are designed to be redistributed and usually warn users of a threat or claim to be notifying them of important or urgent information. Another common form are the emails that promise users monetary rewards for forwarding the message or suggest that they are signing something that will be submitted to a particular group. Urban legends usually have no negative effect aside from wasted time.

In the United States, chain letters that request money or other items of value and promise a substantial return to the participants (such as the infamous ‘Make Money Fast’ scheme) are illegal. Other types of chain letters are viewed as a general nuisance in that frequently multiplying letters clog up the postal system and do not function as correspondence mail, but rather, a game. Some colleges and military bases have passed regulations stating that in the private mail of college students and military personnel, respectively, chain letters are not authorized and will be thrown out. However, it is often difficult to distinguish chain letters from genuine correspondence.

The oldest known channel for chain letters is written, or printed, on letters on paper. These might be exchanged hand-to-hand or distributed through the mail. One notorious early example was the ‘Prosperity Club’ or ‘Send-a-Dime’ letter. This letter started in Denver in 1935, based on an earlier luck letter. It soon swamped the Denver post office with hundreds of thousands of letters before spilling into St. Louis and other cities.

Chain letters take religious perspectives especially relating to Christianity. Often these letters originate from Photocopy centers, claiming to have originated from the Pope, with the intent of persuading people to make copies of such letters. The content usually gives one or two examples of people, sometimes public figures who obeyed and were rewarded and others who disobeyed and suffered heavily, which may even include cases of deaths and of someone becoming a millionaire overnight. These types of letters will flourish for some days and will die out naturally, partly based on the economic realities of the people, and maybe many would also reason that if that was truly the original letter, then it cannot contain cases of people who had broken or continued the chain.

Some email messages may seem fairly harmless, for example, a grammar school student wishing to see how many people can receive his/her email for a science project, but can grow exponentially and be hard to stop. Messages sometimes include phony promises from companies or wealthy individuals (such as Bill Gates) promising a monetary reward to everyone who receives the message. They may also be politically motivated, such as ‘Save the Scouts, forward this to as many friends as possible’ or a concept that a popular TV or radio show may be forced off the air. Some, like the ‘Hawaiian Good Luck Totem’ which has spread in thousands of forms, threaten users with bad luck if not forwarded. There are many forms of chain email that threaten death or the taking of one’s soul by telling tales of other’s deaths, such as the Katu Lata Kulu chain email, stating that if it is not forwarded, the receivers of the message will be killed by the spirit. Another involves an email involving a homicidal Mickey Mouse, who will intrude the recipient’s domain to kill him or her unless sent to the number of recipients (25). Any lower they will suffer death, injury, paranoia, and bad luck.

Platforms like Facebook, YouTube can host chain letters playing with users’ emotions. They may also be in the form of a warning, such as stories of escaped convicts et cetera which urge the reader to pass the message on. One chain letter distributed on MSN Hotmail began, ‘Hey it’s Tara and John the directors of MSN’… and tells you that your account will be deleted if you don’t send that message to everyone. Chain letters have become wide spread on Myspace (in the form of Myspace bulletins) and YouTube (in the form of video comments) as well as on Facebook through messages or applications. For instance, the chain post/email of ‘Carmen Winstead,’ a girl who was pushed down a sewage drain in a firedrill, states that, ‘if you do not repost/send this to 10 people, Carmen will find you and kill you.’ Chain letters are often coupled with intimidating hoaxes or the promise of providing the sender with ‘secret’ information once they’ve forwarded the message.

A chain letter may qualify as a fraudulent activity, as in the case of a pyramid scheme which asks recipients to funnel money up the chain while requesting the letter be distributed to multiple new recipients. The legality of chain letters comes into question when they attempt to funnel monetary value to a single source. When a chain letter suggests a game of chance or a lottery with an opportunity for financial gain it is considered fraudulent under the Postal Lottery Statute. Chain letters that ask for items of minor value such as business cards or recipes are not covered by this law. If pyramid scheme chain letters are sent through email it may constitute wire fraud. An email chain letter may contain trojans or another type of computer virus which is covered under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). This law makes it illegal to distribute computer codes or place them in the stream of commerce if their intent is to cause damage or economic loss.

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